144 years ago: Returning home from a meeting of Joseph Macheca's paramilitary Innocenti organization, a prominent member is shot to death by an unknown assailant. The Innocenti direct their anger at African American neighborhoods in New Orleans. They take over the streets around the Treme Market, pushing out police patrols. Federal officials later send two companies of soldiers to the area to restore order.
144 years ago today (Oct. 24, 1868): Joseph P. Macheca, a native Louisianan engaged in importing and selling Central American fruit, begins leading a Democratic Party-aligned paramilitary group known as the Innocenti on violent anti-Republican marches through New Orleans. The marches are repeated over several days and lead to bloody clashes in some of the city's African-American neighborhoods. Macheca's role as director of the marches is screened somewhat by the Innocenti selection of Pascalis Labarre, a local official, as president of the organization.